**GCF**

The Greatest Common Factor of two numbers is
the greatest whole number that can be divided evenly by both numbers.

E.g. GCF
of 12 and 14 is 2

To find the GCF of two numbers, find the
greatest number which can be divided evenly into both numbers.

Example:

Find the GCF of 18 and 27

18 ÷ 9 = 2 and 27 ÷ 9 = 3

No number greater than 9 can be divided
evenly into 18 and 27, so the GCF of 18 and 27 = 9

**LCM**

The Lowest Common Multiple of two numbers is
the smallest whole number that both numbers can be divided into.
E.g. LCM of 6 and 14 = 42. (42 is the lowest
number that 6 and 14 can be divided into equally.)

Example 1:

14
÷ 6 = 2^{R2} 2x14=28

28 ÷ 6 = 4^{R4} 3x14=42

42 ÷ 6 = 7^{R0}
Because there are no remainders, 42 is the LCM.

Multiply
14 by 1, 2, 3, etc until you get the number that 6 can be divided into equally.

To find the LCM of two numbers, multiply the
second number by 1, 2, 3, 4, etc, and divide by the first number until you get
an equal quotient.

Note: the dividend is the number
to be divided and the quotient is the final result of any division.

Example 2:

Find the LCM of 8 and 22

22 ÷ 8 = 2^{R6}
**2 x 22 = 44**

44 ÷ 8 = 5^{R4} **3 x 22 = 66**

66 ÷ 8 = 8^{R4}
**4 x 22 = 88**

88 ÷ 8 = 11^{R0}
Because there are no remainders, 88 is the LCM.

Multiply 22 by 1, 2, 3, etc until you get the number that 8 can be divided into equally.

To find the LCM of two numbers, multiply the
second number by 1, 2, 3, 4, etc, and divide by the first number until you get
an equal quotient.

Note: the dividend is the number
to be divided and the quotient is the final result of any division.

**Square root**

When working out the square root of a number it is
necessary to check your answer for accuracy by multiplying the answer by itself.
This should come close to the number that was calculated.

E.g. the square root of 9 is 3, because 3 x 3= 9, the
square root of 25 is 5, because 5 x 5 = 25

To find the square root of any number, follow the
steps below...

We will use an example to explain the steps,
the rules apply for all numbers.

Place the decimal point behind the number (27)

Place an amount of zeros in pairs behind the
decimal point.

Remember the more pairs of zeros, the more accurate
the answer.

Calculate a
number, when multiplied by itself comes close or equal to the number (27) to be
calculated. (In this case 5) Place the number (5) before the decimal
point on top of the square root sign and the result of that number (which
is 25) underneath the number being calculated (27) and subtract it (25) from the
number being calculated.(27)

5 x 5 = 25

Bring down the first two zeros and place
them behind the result of the subtraction, (which is 2). Double the number (5)
and place it near the next number down (200). See example...

5 + 5 = 10

Determine the biggest number placing it behind
the number (in this case 10) multiply the total of that number (101) by the
number placed behind (10) (in this case 1) remember it must give a result less than or equal to
the number being matched (200 in this case). The number you wrote next to the
(10) (1), you also write above the last zero which
you brought down. Repeat the above steps until you have completed the problem. See
example below.

1 x 101 = 101, 9 x
1029 = 9261, 6 x 10386 = 62316

**Percentage**

Calculating a percentage of a number,
convert the percent into a decimal, remember that a percentage is a part of a
whole amount. The whole amount can be any quantity but we understand the whole
amount as being one (1). A percentage is a part of one, the reason we convert
the percentage into a decimal is so we can subtract the percentage from the
whole amount. Refer to example below.

Example:

Calculate 32÷% of $56.70

32÷% = 32.5 ÷ 100 = 0.325

0.325 x $56.70 = $18.43
*rounded
to the nearest cent.*

Answer: $18.43