Roman Numerals and their value.


A larger Roman Numeral placed before a smaller Roman Numeral is added together.
e.g. XV = 15, XVI = 16

A smaller Roman Numeral placed before a larger Roman Numeral is subtracted.
e.g. CD = 400, IV = 4

I = 1
V = 5
X = 10
L = 50
C = 100
D = 500
M = 1 000
Also...

(I) = 1 000
((I)) = 10 000
(((I))) = 100 000
((((I)))) = 1 000 000

Symbols and their meaning. < means less than. This symbol is used to show that the number value to the left is smaller than the number value to the right.

e.g. 78< 87, 37.05 < 37½, 23 < 23.9 ,< 2, etc.

> means greater than. This symbol is used to show that the number value to the left is greater than the number value to the right.
e.g. 56 > 45,  67.5 > 67.05,  34 > 33.9,  4 >,  etc.

= means equal to. This symbol is used to show that the number value on the left is equal to the number value on the right.

e.g. 56 = 56, 67.5= 67½, 34.25= 3, 4= 4.00, etc.


Addition of larger numbers:

1)  Re-write the numbers in a stacked formation, making sure the decimal points are in line.

2) Add the numbers in sequence starting from the right, working  to the left. Make sure the decimal points of all numbers are kept in line when writing down your numbers.


Example:

4562.56 + 123.126 + 13.12 = 4698.806          example

Division:
To work out how many times a number goes into another number.


1)  Place the number being divided inside the divide symbol   )¯¯¯¯
then place the number to divide by, on the right side the symbol.

2) Break the number to be divided into smaller sections.

3) Estimate how many times the dividing number goes into each section. 

         -   the  dividing number is called the divisor.
         -   the number to be divided is called the dividend.
         -   the end result of the division is called the quotient.

Refer to the example below.

24 ÷ 360 = 15                example

Multiplication: Have fun with multiplication! Do you know your 12 times tables? If you don't, it's good advice to learn them. If you practice them once a day, you will obtain a very valuable tool and it makes these multiplication problems a whole lot easier to work out.

When you have a large multiplication problem you must remember to keep the numbers in line. Do not bring the decimal point down in your calculations. The first number in the sum has 2 digits to the right of the decimal point, the other number has only one, therefore you count back three places from the right of the product (the product is the final answer). (see example)

23.5 × 345.67 = 8123.245       example

Simplify: To make a sum or equation simpler to understand or work out, you must simplify the sum. Refer to the example below for more help.

Example: 

567 + 456= (500 + 400) + (60 + 50) + (7 + 6) = 1023

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