A bull is a male and a cow is a female. A calf is the young of either sex. A bull calf is a young male and a heifer calf is a young female. Between one and two years old it is called a yearling. A mother cow is called a dam. A steer is a male that has had the testes removed before it reaches maturity. A spayed heifer is a female whose ovaries have been removed. Steers and spayed heifers are gentle and easy to manage. The life span of cattle is about 20 years, but most are sent to be slaughtered for meat much earlier. Heifers are first mated when about 18 months old. The dairy farmer's main income is from the sale of milk. When dairy cows are killed it is usually because of low milk production, udder trouble or infertility. Calves that are not needed for herd replacements are sold at a very early age for veal.


Cow head


Write a report about cattle. Consider the following - breeds like the Ayrshire, the Brown Swiss, the Guernsey, the Holstein-Friesian, the Jersey, the Angus, the Hereford, the Brahman, Charolais, Simmental, Limousin, Salers, Gelbvieh, Chianina and Shorthorns. Research breeding methods, reproduction, artificial breeding, crossbreeding, diseases of cattle and poisonous plants and fungi which kill much cattle each year 
due to farmer's ignorance.


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